Transplantation Of organs and tissues (lat. transplantare – to transplant) – replacement of missing or irreversibly damaged, due to a pathological process, tissues or organs by own tissues or organs (tissues) taken from another organism.
There is autologoustransplantation – the transplantation of organs and tissues within the same organism; isotransplantation – transplantation of organs and tissues taken from genetically identical organisms (for example, identical twins);
allotransplantation (obsolete homotransplantation) – transplantation of organs and tissues between two organisms of the same species;
xenotransplantation (obsolete heterotransplantation) – transplantation of organs and tissues between two organisms of different species.
Transplantation can be orthotopic and heterotopic. Orthotopic transplantation (greek. orthos– straight, right + topos- place) – a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is implanted in the place of an absent or distant organ or tissue. Heterotopic transplantation (greek. heteros- another, different, unusual + topos- place) – a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is implanted in an extrinsic place. Heterotopic T. in some cases may have an auxiliary character, for example, when the transplant (heart, liver, pancreas) has a supporting role in regard to the affected, but also, to some extent, functioning organ.
Transplant is a piece of an organ, tissue or the whole body, which is used for transplantation. An organism, which organs or tissues for transplantation are taken from, is called a donor, and the body, to which tissues or organs are transplanted is called a recipient. To indicate that repeated transplantation of one or another transplant the term “retransplantation” is used.